♚ Xanax

Πέμπτη, 11 Μαρτίου 2010
Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax (not to be confused with Zantac), Xanor, Alprax, and Niravam, is a short-acting drug of the benzodiazepine class. It is primarily used to treat moderate to severe anxiety disorders (e.g., social anxiety disorder) and panic attacks, and is used as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with moderate depression. It is also available in an extended-release form, Xanax XR, both of which are now available in generic form. Alprazolam possesses anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.

Alprazolam has a fast onset of symptom relief (within the first week); it is the most commonly misused benzodiazepine, however the majority of prescribed users do not develop a substance use disorder.


Panic disorder

Alprazolam is FDA-approved for the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia. Alprazolam is very effective in treating moderate to severe anxiety, essential tremor, and panic attacks. Physicians that elect to prescribe alprazolam for longer than 8 weeks should be aware that continued efficacy has not been systematically demonstrated beyond 8 weeks' use, as tolerance to alprazolam's effects may occur after 8 weeks and necessitate discontinuation or physician-directed dose escalation.However, patients with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis for up to 8 months without apparent loss of benefit. The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. Alprazolam is recommended for treatment resistant cases of panic disorder where there is no history of tolerance or dependence.


Anxiety disorder

Alprazolam is indicated for the management of anxiety disorder (a condition corresponding most closely to the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-III-R diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder) or the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety. Alprazolam is recommended for the short-term treatment (2–4 weeks) of severe acute anxiety.

Alprazolam is sometimes prescribed for anxiety with associated depression. There is some evidence for antidepressant treatment of clinical depression in outpatient settings; evidence for inpatients is lacking. The antidepressant effects of alprazolam may be due to its effects on beta-adrenergic receptors. Other benzodiazepines are not known to have antidepressant activity. Studies show that any antidepressant action of alprazolam is questionable and generally weak in comparison to those of antidepressant medications. In contrast, while alprazolam in acute or short-term treatment may have some antidepressant properties, there is evidence that up to a third of long-term users of alprazolam may develop depression.




Side-effects
# drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, fatigue, unsteadiness and impaired coordination, vertigo
# skin rash, respiratory depression, constipation
# disinhibition
# suicidal ideation (rare)
# urinary retention (infrequent)
# hallucinations (rare)
# ataxia, slurred speech
# short-term memory loss and impairment of memory functions
# anterograde amnesia and concentration problems
# Change in libido
# dry mouth (infrequent)
# increase in appetite
# jaundice (very rare)

Paradoxical Reactions
# muscle twitching and tremor
# aggression
# rage, hostility
# mania, agitation, hyperactivity and restlessness

Zero/Negative

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